30 June 2023

Stress Management Resources

How to Manage and Reduce (Relationship) Stress

Relationship Stress Management Resources

Great couples still get angry with each other, but they continue to discuss until there is a solution even if it takes several days.” -Bob Grant

Stress Management Research

Stress Management Resources

Coping with Stress (in Relationships)

A Review of the effectiveness of Stress Management Skills training on academic vitality and psychological well-being of college students Journal of Medicine and Life

A Study of Causes of Stress and Stress Management among Youth ResearchGate

A Study of Learning Stress and Stress Management Strategies of the Students of Postgraduate level: A Case Study of Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan ScienceDirect

An Overview of Stress Management Verywell Mind

Coping with Stress CDC

Coping with Stress at Work American Psychological Association

Effective Stress Relief Strategies Verywell Mind

Healthy ways to handle life’s stressors American Psychological Association

How to Manage and Reduce Stress Mental Health

Manage Stress: Tips and Information to Help You Thrive Cornell University

Manage stress and regain control with 20 tips to better living BetterUp

Practice of stress management behaviors and associated factors among undergraduate students of Mekelle University, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study BMC Psychiatry

What Coping Strategies Can Help Manage Stress? Verywell Mind

Why Stress happens and how to manage it Article

Simple Ways to Cope with Stress Shutter Health

Stress Management: Definition, Techniques, and Strategies The Berkeley Well-Being Institute

Stress Management in Work Settings: A Critical Review of the Health Effects Sage Journals

Stress Management Techniques, Strategies & Activities Article

Struggling with stress? Article

The Long-Term Consequences of Negative Stress Article

What Causes Stress? Stress Management MedicineNet

Ways to Manage Stress WebMD

Relationship Stress : Coping with Relationship Stress

Causes Of Stress In Relationships (And How To Handle Them) Article

Examining the Effects of Couples’ Real-Time Stress Article

How To Address Stress In A Relationship Article

How to Control Anger and Frustration in a Relationship Article

How to Handle Relationship Anxiety / Stress Article

How to Let Go of a Relationship That Stresses You Article

Rescuing Your Relationship from Stress Article

What are the effects of stress on a relationship? Article

Ways Stress Can Affect Your Romantic Relationships Article

Ways to Deal with Stress in Your Relationship Article

All Relationship Resources

Clinical / Major Depression

Clinical / Major Depression Awareness, Research and Resources

Clinical / Major Depression: Mental Health and Motivation

Understanding the difference between healthy striving and perfectionism is critical to laying down the shield and picking up your life. Research shows that perfectionism hampers success. In fact, it’s often the path to depression, anxiety, addiction, and life paralysis.” ― Brené Brown

Clinical Depression / Major Depression Research

Clinical / Major Depression
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known as clinical depression or major depression, is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, low mood, or a loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It goes beyond normal fluctuations in mood and can significantly impact a person's daily functioning, relationships, and overall well-being.

Here are some key features and symptoms associated with major depression:

1. Persistent Depressed Mood: A person with major depression experiences a depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day. This can manifest as feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness.

2. Loss of Interest or Pleasure: A diminished interest or pleasure in most activities, including those previously enjoyed, is a common symptom. Hobbies, social interactions, and even basic daily activities may lose their appeal.

3. Significant Weight Change: A noticeable weight loss or gain without intentional changes in diet or exercise may occur in individuals with depression.

4. Sleep Disturbances: Insomnia (difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or early morning awakening) or hypersomnia (excessive sleepiness) can be symptoms of major depression.

5. Fatigue or Loss of Energy: Feeling tired, lacking energy, or experiencing a general sense of physical and mental sluggishness is often reported by those with depression.

6. Feelings of Worthlessness or Guilt: Individuals with major depression often feel excessively guilty or worthless, even in the absence of logical reasons.

7. Difficulty Concentrating or Making Decisions: Depression can impair cognitive abilities, making it challenging to focus, think clearly, or make decisions.

8. Recurrent Thoughts of Death or Suicidal Ideation: Some people with major depression have recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. It's crucial to take these thoughts seriously and seek help if you or someone you know is experiencing them.

To diagnose major depression, mental health professionals typically use the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.

Treatment for major depression often involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy) and medication, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or other antidepressants. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a balanced diet, and sufficient sleep, can also support the treatment process.

If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of major depression, it's essential to seek help from a qualified mental health professional. They can provide an accurate diagnosis and develop an individualized treatment plan to address the condition effectively." (Source: ChatGPT 2023)

Clinical / Major Depression Online Resources

APA Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Depression Across Three Age Cohorts PDF Download  APA American Psychological Association

Barriers to complete recovery of major depression: Cross-sectional, multi-centre study on clinical practice. RECORD study Elsevier

Best Depression Resources and Organizations for Support and Treatment Verywell Mind

Clinical Depression and Empathy Mental Health and Motivation

Clinical Depression: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Verywell Mind

Clinical Depression: What does that mean? Mayo Clinic

Clinical Practice Review for Major Depressive Disorder Anxiety & Depression Association of America

Depression: Resources and References camh

Depression (Major Depressive Disorder) Clinical Trials Mayo Clinic

Depression Clinical Trials at UCSF University of California San Francisco

Depression Clinical & Research Program Massachusetts General Hospital

Depression News ScienceDaily

Depression Resources American Counceling Association

Depressive Disorder (Depression) Fact Sheet WHO / World Health Organization 

Depression Treatment Options for Adults (Beyond the Basics) UpToDate

Depression: Types, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment Cleveland Clinic

Depression Research Clinic Stanford Medicine

Depression Signs, Symptoms, Latest Treatments, Tests, and More Everyday Health

Frequently Asked Questions about Depression Brain & Behavior Research Foundation

Helpful Online Resources for Depression WebMD

Helpful Websites for Managing Major Depressive Disorder Fetzima

Major Depressive Disorder: Advances in Neuroscience Research and Translational Applications Springer Link

Major Depression | Mental Health in Children Cincinnati Children's

Newly Discovered Trigger for Major Depression Opens New Possibilities for Treatments Neuroscience News

Prognosis and Improved Outcomes in Major Depression: A Review Psychiatry Online

Resources for Clinicians for the Treatment of Depression in Adults American Psychological Association

Self-Help Methods for Major Depression MentalHelp

Single-Dose Psilocybin for a Treatment-Resistant Episode of Major Depression The New England Journal of Medicine

The Right Resources Can Help You Manage Depression Everyday Health

The Serotonin Theory of Depression: A Systematic umbrella Review of the Evidence Molecular Psychiatry

Three Phases of Treatment of Major Depression PCORE

Treating depression in young people Guidance, resources and tools for assessment and management PDF Download Orygen

Top 5 Mental Health Challenges Facing College Students and How to Get Help Best Colleges

Types of Depression Beyond Blue

Understanding and Finding Help for Depression Canadian Mental Health Organization

What Causes Depression? Harvard Health Publishing

What is Major Depression? WebMD

Clinical / Major Depression Books

Beating Depression: The Complete Guide to Depression and How to Overcome It
Stefan Cembroxicz / Dorcas Kingham

Depression Self Help : How to Deal with Depression, Overcome Depression and Symptoms and Signs of Depression Isabel Jones

Handbook of Depression and Anxiety: A Biological Approach, Second Edition
(Medical Psychiatry, 21)
 Siegfried Kasper / Johan A. den Boer / J.M. Ad Sitsen

Holistic Solutions for Anxiety & Depression in Therapy
Peter Bongiorno
What is Depression? - Video

25 June 2023

Mental Health and Procrastination

Procrastination Awareness, Research and Resources

Mental Health and Procrastination

Procrastination is the thief of time, collar him.” ― Charles Dickens, David Copperfield

Procrastination and Research

"Mental health and procrastination can often be interconnected. While procrastination itself is not a mental health disorder, it can be a symptom or a coping mechanism associated with underlying mental health challenges. Here are some ways mental health can influence procrastination:

1. Depression: Feelings of sadness, low energy, and lack of motivation commonly accompany depression. These symptoms can contribute to procrastination as individuals may struggle to find the energy or interest to engage in tasks.

2. Anxiety: Excessive worry, perfectionism, and fear of failure are common traits associated with anxiety disorders. These traits can lead to procrastination as individuals may avoid tasks due to the fear of not meeting their own or others' expectations.

3. ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can make it challenging to sustain focus and maintain organization. Individuals with ADHD may struggle with initiating tasks or staying on track, leading to procrastination.

4. Stress: High levels of stress can overwhelm individuals, making it difficult to prioritize tasks effectively. Procrastination can serve as a temporary relief from stress, but it often exacerbates the pressure in the long run.

5. Perfectionism: While perfectionism is not a mental health disorder, it can significantly impact one's mental well-being. The fear of not meeting high standards can cause individuals to delay or avoid tasks altogether, resulting in procrastination.

Addressing mental health challenges can help alleviate procrastination tendencies. Here are some strategies:

1. Seek professional help: If you believe that your mental health is affecting your ability to manage tasks effectively, consider reaching out to a mental health professional for assessment and support.

2. Develop coping strategies: Learn healthy coping mechanisms to manage stress, anxiety, or other mental health challenges. Techniques like deep breathing exercises, mindfulness, or engaging in enjoyable activities can help reduce symptoms and increase focus.

3. Break tasks into manageable parts: Breaking tasks into smaller, achievable steps can make them feel less overwhelming. This approach can be helpful for individuals struggling with low motivation or difficulties in initiating tasks.

4. Set realistic goals: Establishing realistic goals that consider your mental health challenges can help reduce the pressure to achieve perfection. Setting achievable targets increases the likelihood of initiating and completing tasks.

5. Practice self-compassion: Be kind to yourself and practice self-compassion. Understand that everyone faces challenges, and it's okay to have setbacks. Treat yourself with understanding and support rather than self-criticism.

6. Establish a routine: Creating a structured routine can help individuals with mental health challenges in managing their time and reducing the likelihood of procrastination. Set specific times for tasks and build regular breaks and self-care activities into your schedule.

Remember, addressing mental health challenges takes time and effort. If you're struggling, don't hesitate to seek professional help from a therapist, counselor, or psychiatrist who can provide personalized support and guidance." (Source: ChatGPT 2023)

A Study of Academic Procrastination in College Students PDF Download University of Rode Island University of Rhode Island

Academic procrastination and the performance of graduate-level cooperative groups in research methods courses PDF Download Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

Chronic Procrastination: Overcoming It & When to Seek Help Healthline

Dysfunctional Procrastination Mental Help

Factors Affecting Academic Procrastination PDF Download Western Kentucky University 

Is Procrastination a Sign of a Mental Health Issue? FHE Health

Overcoming Procrastination Rhodes College

Procrastination: An emotional struggle Counseling Today

Procrastination: Why It Happens and How to Overcome It Verywell Mind

Procrastination Among University Students: Differentiating Severe Cases in Need of Support From Less Severe Cases Frontiers in Psychology

Procrastination Research: Articles and Studies about Procrastination Solving Procrastination

Procrastination and Task Avoidance--Theory, Research and Treatment ResearchGate

Procrastination in University Students: A Proposal of a Theoretical Model MDPI

Procrastination is Linked to Poor Mental and Physical Health Neuroscience

Procrastination or 'intentional delay'? American Psychological Association

Student Procrastination: Why Students Procrastinate and How to Stop It Solving Procrastination

Understanding procrastination: A Case of a study Skills Course Springer Link

The Causes and Consequences of Academic Procrastination: A Research Note ProQuest

The nature of Procrastination: A Meta-Analytic and Theoretical Review of Quintessential Self-Regulatory Failure ResearchGate

What are the effects of Procrastination on Mental Health? Counselling Directory

Why People Procrastinate: The Psychology and Causes of Procrastination Solving Procrastination

Why Wait? The Science Behind Procrastination APS / Association for Psychological Science

Why You Put Things Off Until the Last Minute Mclean Hospital

Why you Procrastinate even when it feels bad - Video

 🎓 Mental Health, Psychology and Relationship Resources

01 June 2023

Mental Health and Stoicism

Stoicism Awareness, Information, Research and Resources

Mental Health and Stoicism

Does what’s happened keep you from acting with justice, generosity, self-control, sanity, prudence, honesty, humility, straightforwardness, and all other qualities that allow a person’s nature to fulfil itself? So remember this principle when something threatens to cause you pain: the thing itself was no misfortune at all; to endure it and prevail is great good fortune.” — Marcus Aurelius

“Forces beyond your control can take away everything you possess except one thing, your freedom to choose how you will respond to the situation.” — Viktor Frankl

Contemporary Stoicism Research

Stoicism as a Philosophy for Mental Health

Mental Health and Stoicism
"Stoicism, a philosophy that originated in ancient Greece and later became influential in ancient Rome, can provide valuable insights and practices that can be beneficial for mental health. While not explicitly focused on mental health, Stoicism offers a framework for understanding and navigating life's challenges in a way that promotes emotional well-being and resilience. Here are some key aspects of Stoicism and how they relate to mental health:

1. Acceptance of the present moment: Stoicism emphasizes accepting and embracing the reality of the present moment, rather than resisting or resenting it. This can be valuable for mental health because it encourages individuals to let go of the past, avoid excessive worry about the future, and focus on what can be controlled in the present.

2. Focus on what is within your control: Stoicism teaches that we should direct our attention and efforts towards what is within our control and not waste energy on things we cannot change. This perspective can alleviate anxiety and stress by helping individuals prioritize their actions and responses to focus on what they can influence.

3. Differentiating between what is in our control and what is not: Stoicism highlights the importance of distinguishing between what we can control (our thoughts, attitudes, and actions) and what we cannot control (external events, other people's behaviors). By recognizing this distinction, individuals can reduce frustration and find peace of mind by accepting that they cannot control everything.

4. Developing resilience through adversity: Stoicism emphasizes that difficulties and challenges are an inevitable part of life. By adopting a stoic mindset, individuals can view hardships as opportunities for growth and learning, cultivating resilience in the face of adversity. This perspective can help individuals cope with mental health challenges by fostering a sense of strength and purpose.

5. Practicing self-discipline and virtue: Stoicism emphasizes the development of virtues such as wisdom, courage, justice, and temperance. By cultivating these virtues and practicing self-discipline, individuals can enhance their mental well-being and lead a more meaningful and fulfilling life.

It's important to note that while Stoicism can offer valuable insights and practices for mental health, it is not a substitute for professional help when dealing with serious mental health conditions. If you are struggling with mental health issues, it's recommended to seek support from qualified mental health professionals who can provide appropriate guidance and treatment." (Source: ChatGPT: 2023)

A Correlation and a Comparative Study of Resilience and Stoicism among Indian Adults PDF Download International Journal Of Creative Research Thoughts (IJCRT)

Adopting a Stoic life can provide Many Benefits News Medical Life Sciences

Big boys don’t cry: An investigation of Stoicism and its Mental Health Outcomes ScienceDirect

Birkbeck study on Stoicism and its impact on Mental Health Birkbeck University of London

Can Stoicism Make Us Happy? The Nation

Can Stoic Training develop Medical Student Empathy and Resilience? A mixed-methods study BMC

Exploring Stoicism in Leadership: A Comparison with Emotional Intelligence in Undergraduate Leadership Students Journal of Leadership Education

How To Get Started With Stoicism Orion Philosophy

Increasing Mental Wellbeing with Stoic Philosophy Royal Holloway University of London

Interactive Effects of Stoicism and Religious Coping on Psychological Distress, Fatigue and Intercultural Communication: Muslim Health Workers in Bali JSTOR

Life Hacks from Marcus Aurelius: How Stoicism Can Help Us Knowledge at Wharton

'Is Stoicism for the Mentally Ill, too?' Modern Stoicism

Is Stoicism or Optimism Better for Your Mental Health? The CUT

Modern Stoicism and its Usefulness in Fostering Resilience PDF Download ISISF

Revival of Stoicism in Modern Times Britannica

Stoic Ethics Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy

Stoic Philosophy of Mind Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy

Stoic Principles For Mental Health Nursing Nurses

Stoicism: A Guide To Mental Health LinkedIn

Stoicism: News, Research and Analysis The Conversation

Stoicism Combines Philosophy With Practical Psychology -This Is How Medium

Stoicism for Mental Health Medium

Stoicism Research Guide Otterbein University

Ten Stoic Rules From Marcus Aurelius Orion Philosophy

The Core Beliefs Of Stoicism Made Simple for you Evolve

Too tough to ask for help? Stoicism and attitudes to mental health professionals in rural Australia NIH

The Rise Of Modern Stoicism: Is Keeping Calm A Healthy Option? ELLE

What Is Stoicism? A Definition & 9 Stoic Exercises To Get You Started Daily Stoic

What Stoics Can Teach Us About Mental Health Psychology Today

Why Stoicism Is More Relevant Than You Might Think Psychology Today

Stoicism: Become Undefeatable - Video

What is a Trauma Bond?

Trauma Bond Awareness, Information, Resources and Research

What is a Trauma Bond?

“Their experiences led them to create assumptions about others and related beliefs about themselves such as "this is my lot in life" and "this is what I deserve". Some also learned that personal safety and happiness are of lower priority than survival and that it may be safer to give in than to actively fight off additional abuse and victimization. When abuse is perpetrated by intimates, it is additionally confounding in terms of attachment, betrayal, and trust. Victims may be unable to leave or to fight back due to strong, albeit insecure and disorganized, attachment and misplaced loyalty to abusers. They may have also experienced trauma bonding over the course of their victimization, that is, a bond of specialness with or dependence on the abuser.”― Christine A. Courtois

Trauma Bonds and Abuse

Trauma Bond Research

What is a Trauma Bond?
A trauma bond refers to a complex psychological attachment that forms between two people, typically as a result of a traumatic or abusive relationship. It is characterized by a strong emotional bond that develops due to a shared experience of intense emotional, physical, or psychological pain. Trauma bonds can occur in various types of relationships, such as romantic partnerships, friendships, or even relationships with family members.

Trauma bonds often arise in situations where one person alternates between providing moments of affection, validation, or kindness and inflicting harm, manipulation, or abuse. The intermittent reinforcement of positive and negative behaviors creates a powerful psychological attachment. The victim becomes emotionally dependent on the abuser, seeking validation and approval despite the harm inflicted.

Several factors contribute to the development and maintenance of a trauma bond:

1. Intense emotional experiences: Trauma bonds form when individuals experience intense emotional highs and lows, creating a heightened sense of connection and dependency.

2. Isolation: The abuser may isolate the victim from their support system, making the victim more dependent on the abuser for emotional support and validation.

3. Fear and control: The presence of fear and control techniques, such as threats, manipulation, or gaslighting, can reinforce the trauma bond as the victim becomes conditioned to rely on the abuser for safety.

4. Cognitive dissonance: The victim may hold conflicting beliefs about the abuser, simultaneously acknowledging the harm caused while clinging to positive aspects of the relationship or hoping for change.

5. Low self-esteem: Individuals with low self-esteem or a history of trauma may be more susceptible to trauma bonds, as they may have a heightened need for validation and struggle to establish healthy boundaries.

It's important to note that trauma bonds can be incredibly challenging to break, as they often involve a complex interplay of emotions, psychological conditioning, and dependency. Professional help, such as therapy or counseling, is often necessary to address the underlying trauma and develop strategies for healing and breaking free from the bond." (Source: ChatGPT 2023)

Are you in a Trauma Bond? Safer Places

Can You Develop a Trauma Bond Attachment as a Result of Abuse? Psychology Today

Emotional Attachments in Abusive Relationships: a Test of Traumatic Bonding Theory NIH

Expanding the Theory of Traumatic Bonding as it Relates to Forgiveness, Romantic Attachment, and Intention attachment, and Intention to Return PDF Download University of Tennessee

How to Break an Abusive Trauma Bond Oprah Daily

How to Break a Trauma Bond Socal Mental Health

How To Heal from a Trauma Bond Relationship All Points North

How To Tell if You’re in a Trauma Bonding Relationship - And What To Do About It Well + Good

Identifying & Overcoming Trauma Bonds National Domestic Violence Hotline

Recognizing and Breaking a Trauma Bond CPTSD Foundation

The 7 Stages of Trauma Bonding Choosing Therapy

The Surprising Role of Empathy in Traumatic Bonding Psychology Today

Trauma Bonding: Definition, Examples, Signs, and Recovery Medical News Today

Traumatic Bonding: The Development of Emotional Attachments in Battered Women and other Relationships of Intermittent Abuse ResearchGate

Trauma Bonding – Why you can’t stop Loving the Narcissist Broxtowe Women's Project

Trauma Bonding Explained: Signs and How to Break the Bond The Mend Project

Traumatic Bonding in Victims of Intimate Partner Violence is Intensified via Empathy Sage Journals

Types of Trauma Bonds Peaks Recovery Centers

The Scars That Remain: How Trauma Bonds Shape Our Lives Melinda du Plooy Counselling Services

What Is Trauma Bonding? Signs and How To Cope Cleveland Clinic

Ways the Concept of Trauma Bonding Works Against Survivors Safe & Together Institute

Women of Intimate Partner Abuse: Traumatic Bonding Phenomenon PDF Download Walden University

Why Do People Develop Trauma Bonds? Integrative Life Center

Trauma Bond Explained - Video

Mental Health and the Limbic System

Mental Health and the Limbic System, Awareness, Information and Research

Mental Health and the Limbic System

"Emotional life grows out of an area of the brain called the limbic system, specifically the amygdala, whence come delight and disgust and fear and anger." -
Nancy Gibbs

Functions of the Limbic System

Limbic Brain System Structures / Research

Limbic System and Emotions

Limbic System and Trauma Management

Mental Health and the Limbic System
"Mental health and the limbic system are closely interconnected. The limbic system is a complex network of brain structures involved in emotions, memory, motivation, and learning. It plays a crucial role in regulating and processing emotions, and disturbances within this system can contribute to various mental health disorders.

The main components of the limbic system include:

1. Amygdala: The amygdala is responsible for processing emotions, particularly fear and aggression. It helps to recognize and respond to emotional stimuli and plays a role in the formation of emotional memories.

2. Hippocampus: The hippocampus is essential for the formation and consolidation of long-term memories. It also plays a role in spatial navigation and context-dependent memory recall.

3. Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is involved in regulating several physiological functions, such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep. It also influences the release of hormones from the pituitary gland, which can affect mood and stress responses.

4. Thalamus: While not part of the limbic system, the thalamus acts as a relay center for sensory information and can impact emotional processing through its connections to other limbic structures.

When it comes to mental health, imbalances or dysfunction in the limbic system can contribute to various conditions, including:

1. Anxiety disorders: The amygdala's hyperactivity can lead to excessive fear and anxiety responses, contributing to conditions like generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.

2. Depression: The limbic system is involved in regulating mood, and disruptions in its functioning, particularly the hippocampus, have been associated with depression. Chronic stress and elevated cortisol levels, which can affect the hippocampus, have also been linked to depression.

3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Traumatic experiences can cause changes in the amygdala and hippocampus, leading to the development of PTSD symptoms such as flashbacks and heightened emotional responses.

4. Bipolar disorder: This condition involves mood swings between depressive and manic episodes, and the limbic system's dysfunction is believed to play a role in these extreme mood fluctuations.

5. Addiction: The limbic system, particularly the reward pathway involving the amygdala and hypothalamus, is closely related to addiction. Drugs and other substances can hijack this system, leading to compulsive behaviors.

It's important to note that mental health disorders are complex and often involve multiple brain regions and systems. The limbic system is just one piece of the puzzle, but its role in emotional processing and memory makes it a critical area of study in understanding mental health and related conditions. Treatment approaches for mental health disorders may involve medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes to address these underlying neural imbalances." (Source: ChatGPT 2023)

Aberrant Limbic Brain Structures in Young Individuals at Risk for Mental Illness PCN

Anxiety Treatment | Overactive Limbic System Symptoms Sponaugle Wellness Institute

Childhood Maltreatment, Limbic Dysfunction, Resilience, and Psychiatric Symptoms Sage Journals

Do You Need an Emotional Detox? Five Signs and Their Symptoms Spirituality and Health

Early Life Adversities and Borderline Intellectual Functioning Negatively Impact Limbic System Connectivity in Childhood: A Connectomics-Based Study Frontiers in Psychiatry

Early Life Stress modulates oxytocin effects on Limbic System during acute Psychosocial Stress Oxford Academic

Emotion, Motivation, and the Limbic System NIH

Evidence for Evolutionary Specialization in Human Limbic Structures Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Feeling Impulsive Or Overly Emotional? 3 Scientifically-Proven Ways To Calm Down An Overactive Amygdala Motherhood Community

From Motivation to Action: Functional interface between the Limbic System and the Motor System ScienceDirect

Growth of prefrontal and Limbic Brain regions and Anxiety Disorders in Children born very Preterm Cambridge University Press

How Limbic System Therapy Can Help Resolve Trauma NICABM

How the Limbic System Works: Functions of the Limbic System MasterClass

Impaired White Matter Connections of the Limbic System Networks Associated with Impaired Emotional Memory in Alzheimer's Disease Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

Is a Limbic System Impairment Hijacking Your Health? Institute for Restorative Health

Limbic Cross-Wiring: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment Re-Origin

Limbic Brain Structures and Burnout - A Systematic Review ResearchGate

Limbic Neuromodulation NIH

Limbic System (Brain): Anatomy, Parts and Functions Ken Hub

Limbic System Anatomy Ken Hub

Limbic System Disorders Dr. Axe
  • Disinhibited behavior
  • Increased anger and violence
  • Hyperarousal
  • Hypoarousal
  • Hyperorality/Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
  • Appetite dysregulation
  • Trouble forming memories
  • Cognitive disorders

Limbic System Disorders: What is Limbic ADD? Drake Institute of Neurophysical Medicine

Limbic System – Emotional Experience Srdjan D. Antic, M.D.

Limbic System and Behavior News Medical Life Sciences

Limbic System: Definition, Parts, Functions, and Location Simply Psychology

Limbic System Impairment and How it Affects Your Life Re-origin

Limbic System Therapy NICABM / National Institute for the Clinical Application of Behavioral Medicine

Limbic Response to Stress linking Life Trauma and Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function NIH

Limbic System Trauma Loops Mental Health and Motivation

Long-Term Effects of Acute Stress on the Prefrontal-Limbic System in the Healthy Adult Plos One

Motivation Concepts in Behavioral Neuroscience University of Michigan 

Neuroplasticity, Emotional Healing, and Chronic Illness California Center for Functional Medicine 

Overcoming Limbic System Dysfunction Through Neuroplasticity Re-origin

Schizophrenia and the Limbic System Science Direct

The Emotion Centre is the oldest part of the Human Brain: Why is Mood so Important? The Conversation

The Limbic System: An Anatomic, Phylogenetic, and Clinical Perspective Psychiatry Online

The Limbic System: A Little-Known System That Can Cause Huge Dysfunction Temecula Center

The Limbic System: A Review of its Empirical Foundation Science Direct

The Limbic System in Youth Depression: Brain Structural and Functional Alterations in Adolescent In-patients with Severe Depression Nature

The Role of Limbic System Irritability in Linking History of Childhood Maltreatment and Psychiatric Outcomes in Low-Income, High-Risk Women: Moderation by FKBP5 NIH

Understanding the Effects of Maltreatment on Brain Development PDF Download Child Welfare

What Are the Major Functions of the Limbic System? MedicineNet

What emotions does the limbic system control? Scentered

What Part of the Brain Controls Emotions? Healthline

Ways the Limbic System Impacts Physical, Emotional, and Mental Health GoodTherapy
  • Reward, Motivation, and Addiction
  • Emotional Responses
  • Fight or Flight
  • Memory
  • Hormones Affecting Automatic Functions
  • Attention and Learning

White Matter Microstructure of the Extended Limbic System in Male and Female Youth with Conduct Disorder Cambridge Core

Why You Need To Know About Limbic Trauma Loops Avalon Malibu

You can’t think your way out of PTSD. Try Calming your Limbic System instead The Best Brain Possible

Your Lizard Brain:  The Limbic System and Brain Functioning Psychology Today

3 Brain Systems That Control Your Behavior: Reptilian, Limbic, Neo Cortex | Robert Sapolsky

Limbic System Trauma Loop Resources

 Limbic System Trauma Loop Awareness, Information, Research and Resources

Limbic System Trauma Loop Resources

Traumatized people chronically feel unsafe inside their bodies: The past is alive in the form of gnawing interior discomfort. Their bodies are constantly bombarded by visceral warning signs, and, in an attempt to control these processes, they often become expert at ignoring their gut feelings and in numbing awareness of what is played out inside. They learn to hide from their selves.”― Bessel A. van der Kolk

What are Limbic Trauma Loops?

Limbic System Trauma Loop Treatment

Limbic System Trauma Loop 
"The limbic system trauma loop refers to a complex interaction between traumatic experiences and the limbic system, which is a set of brain structures involved in emotions, memory, and stress response. This loop can perpetuate and intensify the impact of trauma on an individual's emotional and psychological well-being. Here's an overview of the limbic system trauma loop:

1. Traumatic experience: The loop begins with the experience of a traumatic event. Trauma can result from various sources, such as physical or emotional abuse, accidents, natural disasters, or witnessing violence. Traumatic experiences overwhelm the individual's ability to cope and can have profound effects on their sense of safety, trust, and emotional well-being.

2. Limbic system activation: The limbic system, which includes structures like the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, becomes highly activated in response to the traumatic experience. The amygdala, particularly known for its role in fear processing, may become hyperactive and overly sensitive to potential threats, leading to a heightened fear response.

3. Fight-or-flight response: The limbic system, in conjunction with the autonomic nervous system, triggers the fight-or-flight response, which is the body's physiological reaction to perceived danger. This response involves the release of stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol, leading to increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and heightened vigilance.

4. Emotional dysregulation: The limbic system trauma loop can result in ongoing emotional dysregulation. Individuals may experience intense and persistent emotions related to the trauma, such as fear, anxiety, anger, or sadness. They may have difficulty managing and regulating these emotions, leading to emotional instability and mood swings.

5. Intrusive memories and flashbacks: Traumatic memories can be deeply ingrained and intrusive. The limbic system's involvement in memory processing can contribute to the reactivation of traumatic memories, leading to flashbacks or vivid recollections of the traumatic event. These intrusions can further intensify emotional distress and trigger the fight-or-flight response.

6. Hypervigilance and avoidance: The limbic system trauma loop can result in hypervigilance, where individuals remain on high alert for potential threats or danger. They may exhibit heightened sensitivity to triggers associated with the traumatic experience, avoiding certain situations, places, or people that remind them of the trauma. This avoidance can limit their daily functioning and restrict their ability to engage in normal activities.

7. Reinforcement and perpetuation: Over time, the limbic system trauma loop can become self-reinforcing. The more the loop is activated, the more sensitized and reactive the limbic system becomes, leading to an increased likelihood of further emotional dysregulation, intrusive memories, and avoidance behaviors. This cycle can make it challenging for individuals to break free from the trauma's grip and recover their emotional well-being.

Breaking the limbic system trauma loop often requires professional intervention and support. Therapies such as trauma-focused therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), and somatic experiencing can help individuals process and heal from the traumatic experience, regulate their emotions, and develop healthier coping mechanisms. Additionally, self-care practices, stress reduction techniques, and support from trusted individuals can contribute to the healing process." (Source: ChatGPT 2023)

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What is Empathy Deficit Disorder?

Empathy Deficit Disorder Awareness, Research and Resources

Empathy Deficit Disorder EDD

"Vulnerability is the birthplace of love, belonging, joy, courage, empathy, and creativity. It is the source of hope, empathy, accountability, and authenticity. If we want greater clarity in our purpose or deeper and more meaningful spiritual lives, vulnerability is the path."– Brené Brown

Empathy Deficit Disorder (EDD) Symptoms

 Empathy Deficit Disorder Research

Lack of Empathy

Do I have Empathy Deficit Disorder?

What is Empathy Deficit Disorder (EDD)? 

What is Empathy Deficit Disorder?
"Empathy Deficit Disorder" is not a recognized medical or psychological disorder. It seems to be a term coined to describe a perceived lack of empathy in certain individuals or society as a whole. It's important to note that empathy is a complex trait that can vary from person to person and can be influenced by various factors such as upbringing, personality traits, and life experiences.

While some individuals may struggle with understanding or expressing empathy, it's generally not considered a diagnosable disorder. However, a persistent and severe inability to empathize with others may be indicative of other underlying psychological conditions, such as certain personality disorders or autism spectrum disorders. These conditions would typically require a professional evaluation and diagnosis from a qualified mental health professional.

If you or someone you know is experiencing challenges related to empathy or interpersonal relationships, it's recommended to seek the assistance of a mental health professional. They can provide a comprehensive evaluation and offer appropriate guidance or treatment based on the individual's specific needs." (Source: ChatGPT)

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Symptoms of People with Empathy Deficit Disorder: UK Therapy Guide
  • Tend to focus on their own needs and neglect other people’s emotions, even those of close friends and family.
  • Struggle to build and maintain emotional connections.
  • Can be overly judgemental of others and underestimate what others are going through.
  • Don’t usually show appreciation or gratitude.
  • Struggle to understand people from a different cultural, political, or religious background.
     Read more >> 

Symptoms of Empathy Deficit Disorder (EDD) : Counselling Directory

An individual living with EDD may exhibit the following behaviours:
  • Struggle to make new friends
  • Difficulty making emotional connections
  • Quick to criticise or dismiss individuals
  • Struggle to show appreciation towards others
  • Possess a strong sense of entitlement and expectation
  • Inability to listen to others and focus on themselves
  • Lack of understanding that others who feel hurt aren’t the cause of their own pain


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The Relationship between Empathic Deficits and Risk of Antisocial Personality Disorder PDF Download Department of Psychology and Language Science, University College London

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International Mental Health Job Opportunities

Global Mental Health / Academic Job Opportunities

International Mental Health Academic Job Opportunities

In any given moment, we have two options: to step forward into growth or to step back into safety.” — Abraham Maslow

International Mental Health Job Opportunities
"International mental health job opportunities can vary depending on your qualifications, experience, and specific interests within the field of mental health. Here are a few potential avenues to explore:

1. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs): Many NGOs operate worldwide, focusing on mental health issues and providing services in various countries. Examples include Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), International Medical Corps, and the International Rescue Committee. These organizations often have mental health programs and may offer job opportunities in different countries.

2. United Nations (UN) and World Health Organization (WHO): The UN and WHO have initiatives and programs dedicated to mental health. They occasionally have job openings in various countries, particularly in regions where mental health services are needed the most.

3. International Development Agencies: Organizations such as the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Department for International Development (DFID) in the UK, and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) often support mental health projects globally. They may have positions available for mental health professionals to work on these initiatives.

4. Teaching and Research Institutions: Universities and research institutions around the world often have mental health departments and programs. These institutions may offer opportunities for teaching, research, and collaboration on international mental health projects.

5. Private Mental Health Clinics and Hospitals: Some private clinics and hospitals have branches in multiple countries, offering mental health services. These organizations may have employment opportunities for mental health professionals who are willing to work internationally.

It's important to note that job opportunities and requirements can vary significantly based on the country, region, and specific organization. Researching and networking within the mental health community, attending conferences and workshops, and staying updated on relevant job boards and websites can help you find international mental health job opportunities that align with your goals and qualifications." (Source: Chat GPT 2023)

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